SCADA system 1、Basic structure SCADA system market is dominated by C/S architecture and mainly by configuration software, the function of SCADA is referred to as "four remote" in the industry, that is, around the four aspects of real-time production data collection, production equipment process monitoring, production equipment abnormal alarm, data analysis, report and dashboard display. The data collected in the production process is product-centered, and is distributed in relation to human, machine, material, method, environment, testing and R&D, and is centered on the data generated during the operation of production equipment. ◆The common SCADA system contains 5 subsystems, which are HMI (human-machine interface), (computer) monitoring system, RTU (remote terminal control system), PLC and communication network. ◆ HMI (Human Machine Interface): The function of the HMI element is to display the received information in an easy-to-understand graphical way and to archive all the data received. ◆ (computer) monitoring system: data can be collected and commands can be submitted to monitor the progress of the procedure. ◆RTU (Remote Terminal Unit, remote terminal control system): RTU can be connected to many sensors used in the program, and its function is to collect information from the site and transmit that information to the monitoring system with the help of communication software. ◆PLC (programmable logic controller, programmable logic controller): It is suitable for industrial site measurement and control, with strong field measurement and control functions, and does not provide human-machine interface. SCADA is the scheduling management layer, and PLC is the field equipment layer. Because of its cheap price and wide range of uses, it is also commonly used as a field device to replace the remote terminal control system for special functions. ◆Communication network: It is a channel to provide data transmission between monitoring system and RTU (or PLC). 2、Application industry SCADA can be regarded as the pillar of modern industrial development, and its application field is very wide, mainly used in project-based industries, which can be roughly divided into three categories. ◆The first category is process industries: including processing and manufacturing, power generation, assembly, oil refining, petrochemicals, etc.. ◆The second category is municipal infrastructure: including water supply plants and water supply networks, wastewater and sewage treatment, oil and gas transmission lines, electricity transmission and supply, large-scale communication systems and urban alarm systems. ◆The third category is public facilities: including air conditioning monitoring, energy management and security monitoring for medium and large buildings, airports, terminals and subways, etc. 3、SCADA system future development direction outlook ◆Product platformization: Downstream users and product suppliers are inclined to use SCADA as the basic platform product, on which diversified functions such as management control and positioning alarm are integrated to maximize the development of corresponding functions of SCADA software. ◆Networking: With the progress of technology and the current rapid development of artificial intelligence, end users often require software engineers to monitor all programs without leaving home, which requires real-time collection of equipment data, update storage, monitoring and analysis of functional software can be tracked and monitored in a timely manner. ◆ Cross-systemization: In order to adapt to the diversity of current operating systems, the future SCADA software also needs to have the function of cross-operating system application to enhance its application flexibility. ◆Openness: The future software is characterized by openness, and the software adopts "standardized technology", such as ActiveX, OL technology (Obiect Linking And Embedding), VBA, OPC (OLE forProcess Control) and other technologies. When the user in the actual application, such as the existing functions of the software can not meet the requirements, the user can according to their own needs for secondary development. About energy management system 1、Basic probability Energy Management System, or EMS for short, is an information-based control system that helps industrial production enterprises plan and utilize energy rationally, reduce energy consumption per unit of product, improve economic efficiency, and reduce CO2 emissions while expanding production. The energy management system can monitor the energy consumption status of the user's production and operation dynamic process, collect a large number of scattered energy consumption data of electricity, water and gas in the production process, provide real-time and historical data analysis, multi-dimensional energy consumption comparison and analysis functions, so as to discover the problems in the process of energy consumption, establish the enterprise energy consumption assessment and management system by optimizing the operation mode and energy use structure, and improve the efficiency of the enterprise It can establish energy consumption assessment and management system, improve the efficiency of existing energy supply equipment, realize energy saving and efficiency management, reduce production costs, and achieve efficient and low-carbon production. The construction of energy management system can not only meet the current needs of enterprises for energy management, but also expand with the continuous development of enterprises. The use of intelligent energy management system can effectively reduce the costs incurred by enterprises due to manual meter reading, data statistics, form maintenance and data processing of energy consumption; through online analysis of monitoring data, it can help enterprises conduct real-time monitoring, accurate statistics, multi-dimensional analysis and detailed prediction of energy consumption, and ultimately provide powerful data support and decision support for energy saving and self-improvement.
Monitoring: Regular collection of energy consumption information to provide a basis for energy management and to explain deviations from targets. Analysis: EMS has an information system capable of storing and analyzing energy consumption data, which can help users determine trends regarding energy use at each production level of the manufacturing process or at the ambient temperature of the building. Targets: Set targets to reduce or control energy consumption based on appropriate standards or benchmarks. Control: The system implements management and technical measures to correct any discrepancies with the target. Interaction: The main purpose of interaction is to link the user's behavior to energy consumption. By displaying real-time consumption information, the user can see the direct impact of his or her behavior, which can significantly reduce energy consumption simply by giving the user access to his or her real-time consumption.
3、System architecture Common energy management systems adopt B/S architecture, including a four-tier structure: energy efficiency management application layer, server layer, network transmission layer, and field device layer.
(1) Energy efficiency management application layer PC terminal: Access the server through web login to complete data collection, verification, analysis, processing, output, system maintenance, authorized use, authority hierarchy control, etc., and can transmit important data, alarm information, fault information, etc. of field operation to enterprise decision makers. APP terminal: supporting "Android + IOS" two systems of mobile terminal, convenient for users to access the energy management system on the cell phone.
(2) Server layer The server architecture usually contains two parts: data server and application server. The application uses microservice architecture, which has great advantages in data and program processing capability, stability, reliability, security, scalability, manageability, etc. It mainly realizes the storage, processing, parsing, application presentation, permission management, security protection, remote maintenance, data management and publishing of data.
(3) Network transmission layer According to the actual situation of the site this program design uses a combination of wired and wireless methods, using RS485, RJ45, LoRa, Wi-Fi, NB-IOT, visual reading, infrared identification and other transmission methods to connect various types of intelligent collection terminals in the area to the corresponding communication managers, and each communication manager connects to the user WAN through Ethernet, 4G, 3G, GPRS and other wired or Each communication manager is connected to user WAN through Ethernet, 4G, 3G, GPRS and other wired or wireless methods to establish network connection with the server.
(4) Field equipment layer The field equipment layer is responsible for the collection and uploading of electrical parameters. It includes the collection and uploading of energy consumption data of electricity, steam and coal. The field collection layer is composed of multifunctional power meters, multifunctional energy meters, intelligent water meters, intelligent gas meters, temperature and humidity sensors, infrared reading, visual reading and other collection devices.
Network topology diagram
(1) Improvement of the measurement system The improvement of metering system is the first step of energy management. The energy management system collects energy consumption data from all parts of the enterprise by installing metering meters on the circuits of energy-consuming equipment, classifying them and establishing real-time and historical databases. It realizes the collection and categorization of the consumption of electric energy, water, compressed air, natural gas, steam, etc. It can also be integrated with other systems, such as MES, SCADA, BAS, DCS, ERP, etc. The energy consumption data can be docked and shared through ODBC, XML, OPC, FTP, API, Web and other means.
(2) Construction of data transmission network Realize secure and stable data transmission. Based on modern data transmission network, multi-channel and multi-path transmission methods can be used to transmit metering data to the data center. The common transmission methods are divided into wired and wireless. Wired transmission can use optical fiber, twisted pair, VPN, etc., and wireless transmission can use 4/5G, WIFI, Lora, NB-IoT, etc. Data encryption transmission, adding data security isolation, network LAN division, firewall and other technologies are used to ensure the security of internal and external network data.
(3) "Internet + big data" management center Build a data storage management center. Through localized deployment, we can build a set of distributed and multi-redundant data storage center, or build a group "private cloud" or rent a "public cloud". Based on the effective use of "Internet + Big Data", we can complete AI analysis of enterprise data.
(4) Construction of a set of intelligent energy integrated management platform Realize one map of intelligent energy management. Based on energy data and supported by data security transmission and data center, build a comprehensive management platform for intelligent energy. The platform is used to realize real-time monitoring, alarm checking, report output, operation and maintenance inspection, asset management, energy consumption analysis, energy consumption prediction, expert evaluation and other functions.
IV. Comparison Summary Comparison of C/S and B/S Easy to use: Any time, any place, any system, as long as you can use a browser to access the Internet, you can use the terminal of the B/S system, more system users can join by simply setting up an account, training, and support mobile office and distributed office. C/S is a typical centralized mechanized processing, relatively low interactivity. Easy to upgrade: C / S system normally is a non-separable whole entity. If part of the modules changes, other associated modules needs to change too. It makes the system upgrade costs are relatively higher. B/S is composed of building blocks, which can be updated simultaneously by changing only the pages, and almost all the work of development and maintenance is concentrated on the server side, so when the enterprise upgrades the web application, it only needs to update the software on the server side. When an enterprise upgrades its web application, it only needs to update the software on the server side. DCS/SCADA relatively focus on real-time, stability, security, commonly used C / S architecture construction, while energy management systems focus on energy analysis and management and ease of use, commonly used B / S architecture assumptions.
◆Application scenarios and value comparison
According to the different application scenarios, the value brought by each system naturally cannot be generalized. DCS/SCADA is often used for production operation monitoring and scheduling, mainly focusing on process control direction. The energy management system focuses on energy consumption monitoring and energy management and analysis, and is an important tool for a set of enterprise energy management.